University description (as per official university website)
In the Algerian society, which is undergoing great mutations, the University of Algiers is the backbone of the country’s development. It trains civil servants, teachers, cadres and researchers to meet the needs of all the activity sectors. It enshrines the development of values and constitutes a major asset involving experience, expertise, and research.
The University of Algiers, the first Algerian University ( the alma mater) was established in 1909 (under the Law of 3O December, 1909). This creation was however the result of a series of stages in academic activity, marked in particular by the Law of 1879 establishing four specialized schools: medicine, pharmacy, sciences, letters, and law.
During the colonial period, it experienced both quantitative and qualitative changes.
After independence, while pursuing its teaching mission, it also went through a number of changes involving its organization, structuring, and orientation in terms of pedagogy and research.
I. THE UNIVERSITY OF ALGIERS IN THE COLONIAL ERA
The University of Algiers went through the main following stages during the colonial period:
1) THE SCHOOL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES
The School of Medical Sciences was the first higher education institution established on the Algerian soil. During this first stage, the teaching of medicine, inaugurated in 1833, was conducted by military doctors. The school started teaching physiology and structural anatomy in the Dey (former Algerian King)’s Hospital as early as 1833. These courses were initially destined to European students.
However, by a Note of the War Ministry dated 10 June 1833, the courses were open to Turkish, Moorish, and Jewish students.
This school was closed in 1835 by order of General Clauzel.
Following a recommendation made by the Municipal Council of Algiers in 1854, the School of Medicine was officially opened by a Decree issued on 4 August, 1857, under the name of Preparatory School of Medicine and Pharmacy, but its activities started only in 1859. It was placed under the aegis of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Montpellier.
Pursuant to the Law of 20 December, 1879, creating higher education institutions in Algeria, this school became the Higher School of Medicine and Pharmacy.
However, it became autonomous only by becoming the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy as a result of
The Law of 30 December, 1909.
This Faculty counted among its students one who was to have an outstanding place in Algerian history, Benyoucef Benkhedda, who in 1961 became the second President of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic. Benkhedda registered at this Faculty in 1943, one year after joining the Algerian People’s Party (PPA) in 1942. He was however soon arrested by the colonial forces and as soon as he was liberated decided to postpone the resumption of his studies, giving precedence to the Algerian cause, getting his pharmacy degree in 1951.
2) THE SCHOOL OF LETTERS
It is interesting to note that as early as 1832, the teaching of the Arabic language, of Arabic literature, and of Shari’a was authorized in Algeria. One must however point out that the level of the Arabic language dispensed then was rather elementary.
This teaching was first entrusted with a military translator and so conceived as to meet the needs of the military administration. In fact, by a Royal Ordinance issued in 1839, the faculty was made subservient to the War Ministry.
Yet, these courses were the seed of the School of Letters of Algiers, and as of 1849, they were duplicated in Oran and Constantine.
On 20 December, 1879, the Higher School of Letters of Algiers was created.
Historical studies had the share of the lion by comparison to literature and philosophy.
Yet, the School ranked among the foremost centres for oriental studies.
Owing to this impetus, various institutions subservient or not to French universities were created:
in 1900, the Bouzareah College ( “Ecole Normale d’Instituteurs”); in 1900 also, the School of Commerce; in 1905, the Institute of Agricultural Studies.
In 1905 the School of Letters hosted the 8th Congress of Orientalists.
In 1909, under the Law of 30 December, 1909, it became the Faculty of Letters.
3) THE LAW SCHOOL
Interest in law studies was manifest as early as 1857, shaped essentially by historical considerations related to the colonial context of the period: the French administration was in need of knowing the laws and rules grounding the life of Algerian society.
At the outset, this school was located at the Casbah, and merely provided a preparation towards the Baccalauréat (high school certificate) and the “Capacité en Droit” –the degree licencing for the practice of the lawyer’s profession. A draft project for the development of the school was submitted by Professor Paul Beer between 1833 and 1876, but failed to be realized.
It is in pursuance of the Law issued on 12 December, 1879, authorizing the formal teaching of Law and the creation of a Law School that progressively, a course of studies part of the requirements for the Licence (Bachelor of Arts) degree, was established, but the examinations were held overseas ( at Aix en Provence or Montpellier). The focus of the School was Moslem law and Algerian common law.
Under the Law of 5 December, 1885, the School was authorized to organize a full-fledged course of studies leading up to that degree. As of 1889, the School also issued a Legislation Studies Certificate.
In 1909, the School became The Faculty of Law, and in 1957, it was developed to include both Law and Economics.
It remained so up until 1971, nine years after Algeria’s independence, the year of the Reform of Higher Education, when this Faculty became an Institute.
4) THE SCHOOL OF SCIENCES
This school was created in 1868. Due to its limited means at the outset, it had to pool its efforts in certain areas with the School of Medicine.
Ever since 1880, this school organized many academic activities in the fields of geology, chemistry and botany. It played a key role in the development of agriculture.
In 1909, it became the Faculty of Sciences.
5) THE INSTITUTES
This period witnessed the opening of a great number of INSTITUTES:
1845: Institute of Bio-technology and Biometrics
1923: Institute of Overseas Health and Medicine
1931: Institute de Meteorology and Astronomic Physics
1937: Institute of Saharan Studies
1942: Institute of Urban Development
1946: Institute of Higher Islamic Studies
1949: Institute of Political Science
1952: Institute of Philosophical Studies
1956: Ethnology Institute
1956: Institute of Nuclear Studies
1957: Preparatory Business Institute
This brief survey clearly indicates that ever since the beginning and throughout the colonial era, Higher Education in Algeria was conceived to serve the interests of the colonial undertaking. From the start, teaching was Frenchified and directly made subservient to the French University.
II.THE UNIVERSITY IN POST-INDEPENDENCE ALGERIA
From the year of Algerian independence to today, the University of Algiers has made great strides, particularly following the 1971 Reform of Higher Education.
In addition, while in the first years of Independence (1962), the University of Algiers relationships with other universities were still few, in spite of the international backing received in the wake of the Fire of the University Library, over the years the University has built up its integration into the international academic environment.
Let us now survey the six main stages that have characterized the growth of the University of Algiers to date:
The University of Algiers was the major Algerian University. It hosted the essential disciplines (exact sciences and technology, medical sciences, social and human sciences).
This period was inaugurated by the Reform of Higher Education, the introduction of the national language in all the disciplines, and the total Arabization of certain branches of the social sciences (in a first stage, philosophy and history).
The University of Exact Sciences and Technology at Boumerdes (Algiers) –USTHB--was opened on 24 January, 1978, which entailed the closing of the Faculty of Sciences, previously subservient to the University of Algiers.
During this period, Arabization was extended to all the disciplines and new Institutes were created:
--The Institute of Library Science;
--The Institute of Physical and Sports Education;
--The Institute of Islamic Sciences
The medical sciences became autonomous as early as September, 1984,when the former Institutes of Medical Sciences, Dentistry, and Pharmacy were brought together as the National Institute of Higher Medical Sciences (INESSM: Institut National des Sciences Médicales). The University of Algiers became specialized in the social sciences and the humanities.
The University was organized into Institutes. It included:
--The Institute of Legal and Administrative Studies (Law)
--The Institute of Economics
--The Institute of Foreign Languages
--The Institute of Arabic Language and Letters
--The Institute of Sociology
--The Institute of Psychology and Education
--The History Institute
--The Philosophy Institute
--The Institute of Political Sciences and International Relations
--The Institute of Information and Communication
--The Institute of Archaeology
--The Institute of Physical and Sports Education
--The Institute of Library Science
--The Institute of Translation and Interpretation.
6) 1998 to this year:
1)1998: THE UNIVERSITY CONSTITUTED OF FACULTIES.
Under Executive Decree no 98-382 of 12/12/1998, amending the 84-209 Decree of 18 August, 1984, providing the Organization of the University of Algiers and its Management, the University of Algiers was broken down into FACULTIES as follows:
--The Law Faculty
--The Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences
--The Faculty of Medicine
--The Faculty of Social Sciences
--The Faculty of Letters and Languages
--The Faculty of Religious Studies
Note that during this period, the teaching of Medicine and Religious studies, previously autonomous, were integrated into the University of Algiers.
2) 2001: A NEW FACULTY ESTABLISHED, ANOTHER GIVEN A NEW NAME.
In 2001, under Executive Decree 01-264 dated 18 September, 2001, amending Decree 84-209 of 18 August,1998 on the Re-Organization and New Management of the University of Algiers, a Faculty of Political Sciences and Information was established and the Faculty of Religious Studies’ name was changed into the Faculty of Islamic Sciences.
The University of Algiers thus was made to consist of these seven Faculties:
--The Law Faculty
--The Faculty of Economic Sciences and Management
--The Faculty of Medicine
--The Faculty of Human and Social Sciences
--The Faculty of Political Sciences and communication
--The Faculty of Letters and Languages
--The Faculty of Islamic Sciences.
Recent legislation also provided for the creation of University extensions in or outside Algiers, and for the creation of institutes (cf. Executive Decree 03-279 of 23 August, 2003), bringing about the advent of two Institutes:
--The institute of Archaeology
--The institute of Physical and Sports Education
4) 2009: AMENDMENTS AFFECTING THE UNIVERSITY OF ALGIERS UNDER EXECUTIVE DECREE NO.09-342 of 03 Dhou El Kaada 1430/ 22 October 2009 amending Decree n°84-209 of 18 August, 1984 , on the organization and running of the University of Algiers.
This Decree modifies the number of Faculties making up the University of Algiers, henceforth consisting of:
Missions of the Faculties composing the University of Algiers are set as follows:
· The faculty of law
· The faculty of medicine
· The faculty of Islamic Sciences.