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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


University description (as per official university website)

IMPA was the first research unit created by the National Research Council (CNPq), only a year after his own creation in 1951, this funding agency for basic research and for Brazil. Ever had a national character and was always directed to the encouragement of scientific research in mathematics and the training of new researchers, as well as for the diffusion and improvement of mathematical culture in the country. These activities closely related to each other, promote mathematical knowledge is vital to the development of science and technology in general, which in turn is essential for economic and social progress of the nation.
IMPA initially occupied one room of the Brazilian Center for Physics Research (CBPF)in Red Beach, Rio de Janeiro. In addition to its director, Lelio Gama, were part of his research staff, and Leopoldo Nachbin Mauricio Peixoto, a small but illustrious group.

His academic reputation was consolidated in 1957, when it started the implementation of Brazilian Mathematics Colloquium, which occur every two years and about 50 participants initially gathers today more than 1200 mathematicians. That year, IMPA moved to Rua São Clemente in Botafogo, and Elon Ribenboim Lee and Paul have joined his group of researchers. The work of the Institute focused on the training of researchers and teachers without even a formal program of graduate studies, and to stimulate the development of other centers of mathematical research in the country. The scientific exchange with foreign countries was also very excited. His library had from the outset with journal collections of very good level is now considered truly outstanding in international standards.

The former seat of IMPA in Botafogo In 1957, IMPA moved to Rua São Clemente 265, Botafogo. The Institute has occupied this building for ten years.

In 1962 began the master's and doctorate in mathematics under an agreement with the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), officially granting master's and doctor.
At this time, available resources were scarce and IMPA kept a small number of researchers. This scenario has changed remarkably since 1967, when he received great financial support from the National Bank for Economic Development (BNDE currently BNDES). Shortly before, in 1966, Lindolpho de Carvalho Dias became its director, replacing Lelio Gama, a position he held until 1969 and also 1971 to 1979 and from 1980 to 1989. Elon Lages Lima was its director on several occasions: from 1969 to 1971, from 1979 to 1980 and from 1989 to 1993. In the period 1993-2003, the direction was exercised by Jacob Palis and from September 2003 by Cesar Camacho.

The former seat of IMPA Center In 1967, IMPA moved to Rua Luís de Camões 53, a historic building in downtown Rio de Janeiro (currently the headquarters of the Centro Cultural Hélio Oiticica), staying until 1981.

In 1968 IMPA, with the support of BNDES and subsequently the Financier of Studies and Projects (FINEP), CNPq besides himself, has expanded its staff with Brazilian mathematicians in activity abroad or doctoral student on the best foreign institutions. From 1970 regular programs established masters and doctorate, with a major expansion of its research activities and training of researchers. Without diminishing the importance of the initial role of its founders, this new and crucial step was due to the work of new generations of mathematicians.
Indeed, the institutional changes made by the CNPq in the 70's that allowed the IMPA and a quantum leap to expand its activities, the chance of contracting a fixed set of researchers. Until then its researchers were either kept for scholarships or had positions in other institutions, Brazilian or foreign. This allowed the expansion and diversification of research areas and, consequently, training of young researchers.

The master's and doctoral programs have been given a regular basis, being the first institution to IMPA in mathematics have, since 1971, the mandate of the Federal Council of Education to award the degrees of Master and Doctor. Since then he has always deserved the maximum term with the Commission for Improvement of Personnel (CAPES). The concept that IMPA has national and international results from the quality of its scientific research and its role in training new researchers: over 230 doctors and 450 masters, so far.
As of 1970 established new business areas such as Differential and Algebraic Geometry, Probability and Statistics, Operations Research and Mathematical Economics. So far the activities have focused primarily on Dynamical Systems and Differential Topology. Later they would consolidate the areas of Partial Differential Equations, Fluid Dynamics and Computer Graphics.

IMPA's current headquarters in the Botanical Gardens In 1979 began the construction of its own office located at IMPA Estrada Dona Castorina, 110 at the Botanical Garden. This headquarters was inaugurated in 1981.

An important milestone in the consolidation of IMPA was building its own headquarters, the Forest Gardens, Botanical Gardens, which opened in July 1981 with an International Symposium on Dynamical Systems, and the presence of several mathematicians from other areas. The continued consolidation of the scientific, towering over the decade to 32 researchers, all with PhDs.

Since the beginning of its activities, the teaching of mathematics at IMPA has always been associated with research, and was oriented towards supporting the national universities, and later in Latin America, to develop their own activities in such a high level. Had fundamental importance, in addition to programs for training researchers (master and doctorate), fostering the exchange of researchers, including abroad, and holding of scientific meetings and Brazilian Mathematics Colloquium and the Post-Doctoral Programs and Graduate Summer

The Postdoctoral activities include long-term (1-2 years), and also of short duration (1-3 months), they usually taking place during the Post-Doctoral Summer always offers several advanced research activities. IMPA annually receives an average of 70 teachers for training postdoctoral. Much research has been done jointly co-authored by professors from universities geographically remote, thanks to contacts made effective during the summer program Besides these, more than 100 students, undergraduate and postgraduate students, from universities almost all Brazilian states, attend courses in mathematics in the Post-Graduate Summer Institute.
Several years ago the IMPA has offered refresher courses for teachers of secondary school. Such activity has been growing in importance and is now being incorporated into the regular schedule. For even longer has provided extensive support to the Brazilian Mathematical Society, particularly its program of Math Olympics, both nationally and in terms of Brazil's participation in international competitions.

Despite the crisis of national institutions in the 80's and early 1990, IMPA is now in active research and training of researchers, with 35 researchers. As mentioned above, the research currently undertaken at IMPA cover the areas of Algebra and Algebraic Geometry, Analysis - Partial Differential Equations and Fluid Dynamics, Computer Graphics, Mathematical Economics, Differential Geometry, Operations Research and Optimization, Probability and Dynamical Systems. Her doctoral students are from more than a dozen countries in Latin America and Europe. It was designated as a Center of Excellence for Post-Doctoral at the international level, the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS). It is the permanent headquarters of the Brazilian Mathematical Society, founded in 1969, and the International Mathematical Union from 1990 to 1998, which first occurs outside the countries of Western Europe and North America.
Another key activity which sprang from IMPA in research activities and training of human resources was the publication of educational material. Several series of publications IMPA are used by universities as a bibliographic reference in its post-graduate students and even undergraduates. This is particularly true for the books of Euclid and Design Collection of University Mathematics. The existence of a math Brazilian literature, and facilitate the learning task, is an encouragement to young researchers of vocations. IMPA also launched, in collaboration with the Vitae Foundation, a collection of books for math teachers in the second degree, in support of its recycling program for teachers of secondary school.

IMPA researchers have received numerous awards from national and international awards such as the Mill Santos, National Science and Technology Almirante Alvaro Alberto, Bernardo Houssay Inter-Science, Third World Academy of Sciences and Teixeira. Many of them are members of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences and honorary degrees from universities have. Furthermore, over ninety percent of them enjoy fellowship of CNPq.

All this makes the IMPA is now considered the mathematics institute the most prestigious in Latin America and pattern similar to the best scientific institutions in developed countries. In 1994, the Commission of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT) that assessed their institute concluded that "the excellence of IMPA makes him a model of what should be a national institute for basic research and it should be offered the position to preserve this excellence. "

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