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Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena
Jena, Germany


University description (as per official university website)

History, University of Jena

Within a few years since the political change in East Germany, the small Thuringian city of Jena University has again evolved into a science center of international stature. There is optimism, but with everything new beginning one looks back fondly on the great tradition: Goethe, Schiller, Hegel and Fichte shaped the spiritual life Abbe, Zeiss and Schott laid the foundations for economic prosperity.
The more than 25,000 university and college students give the 100,000-city embraced the dream of limestone rocks, into the valley of the Saale hugs, a perpetually youthful flair.

Generations of poets, philosophers and students have celebrated in poems and songs, perhaps the most beautiful Gottfried Benn: "Jena ourselves in the lovely valley. At every step culture is everywhere - particularly the classical and romantic and the early days. Even an original student lifestyle adopted by Jena originated and produced elemental effects on the government: Here was formed that first student fraternity, the black-red-gold flag - now the national colors - since the meeting at the Wartburg in 1817 the democratic spirit of unity and justice and freedom signaled. While playing the Korporierten in Jena of the 21 Century preserve virtually no role, the memory of the democratic awakening not only the carrier of colored ribbons and hats.
Breaks and new beginnings seem to be a specialty of old Jena. When in 1548 the first two professors and Stigel Strigel with its 171 Studiosi in the college Jenense, a former Dominican monastery, moved in, there was their country, Johann Friedrich I, whose 500th Birthday on 30 June was celebrated in 2003, still in custody as imperial, ringleader 'of the Protestant Elector of the Wettin Schmalkalden League had suffered a catastrophic military defeat against the Catholic Majesty, and had to cede his old residence and the University of Wittenberg in the hated cousin Moritz. The fused to a third territory, he chose Weimar as the new seat of government and established in the neighboring farming community and a farmer town of Jena "High School" to be trained and henceforth Protestant clergymen and teachers. Only the precious electoral "Bibliotheca Electoralis" Frederick the Wise, saved he from Wittenberg to Jena.
Initially, the academic newcomers suffered not just good, the Tranksteuerfreiheit the Professores and the rough manners of their students, who could be prosecuted because of extensive legal autonomy from the arm of the municipal courts were hardly, the good citizens of a thorn in the side. In spiritual terms, however, made to the rapid development of humanistic approaches in reform-oriented educational jumps; the mid-1550s it was regarded as a leading center of the Reformation, the Jena Luther Wittenberg edition ran the project from the competition standing. But not until 1558, the Jena "High School" the imperial privilege granted university.
Some 100 years later, had made reform of the early modern university with its four faculties - philosophy, theology, law and medicine - a research community developed with very varied interests. The mathematician and astronomer, Weigel was one of his pupils, including Leibniz, is one of the founders of scientific thought.
During this time, the roots of the universality, which, should mature to flower, Jena about the nickname "Stack City of Knowledge". Who busied themselves to such praise, had himself as "chief overseer of the immediate preparations for Science and Art" no small part in it: The Privy Council Johann Wolfgang Goethe undertook methodically eminent thinkers and researchers in the small province of the Duchy and created systematically for their work ideal conditions . Libraries, botanical gardens, natural history archives, and laboratories were subject to his - cameral - a sense of order, institutions such as the observatory or the mineralogical collection date back to his initiative. At the same time benefited with Goethe's own scientific ambitions of this infrastructure. He worked closely with the chemist Doebereiner, the founder of the periodic table, or together with the anatomist Justus Loder. His crowned with success finding the premaxillae is one of the earliest examples of targeted medical research in modern times, the poet-prince handwritten originator retains the Anatomical Collection of the University of Jena today.
But the key point for the classical-romantic "wonder years" was an early, Network ', which gathered under excellent conditions remarkable minds in one place. Hegel, Fichte and Schelling, Voss, the brothers Schlegel and Friedrich Schiller - as a history professor taught - in Halle, Novalis, Hölderlin, Brentano, Froebel and Arndt were sitting in their lectures. In our days, announce street names and plaques, but also many lovingly restored buildings from that time: about Schiller's garden house, the domicile of Fichte, Goethe's house inspectors in the Botanical Garden or the Frommannsche property, which now serves as an institute established for language studies and art historian. The unique culture of compaction, which launched in those years in the Ernestine double residence aufbruch a competitive paradigm shift in culture and science, now own a Collaborative Research Centre "Phenomenon Weimar - Jena. Culture around 1800".
The basis of what the city of Jena earned a world famous names as an industrial site created, but not until some 70 years later, another lucky constellation staff - again, at the University of. The precision engineering and optics companies Zeiss' and the glaschemische Schott & Gen. emerged as a kind of spin-offs of the Alma Mater - such as it is now again the innovative revival of the high-tech location Germany represents an ideal type through a close integration of science and industry. These forms of cooperation between university and industry in Jena, as it emerged naturally.
The impetus for departure into the industrial age was in 1870 to associate professor appointed physicist Ernst Abbe, by - just early 30s - an image formation theory created the microscope, while incorporating the known diffraction phenomena to take place in microscope construction to move from trial and error for the methodical construction . His client was the university mechanic Carl Zeiss, who drove his private workshops, the optical apparatus to ever higher perfection. founded as a third member Otto Schott, who did his doctorate in 1875 in Jena, at the urging Abbes 1884 "Glass Technology Laboratory" to melt the high-purity specialty lenses for microscopes and Zeiss optical equipment '.
Even the Humboldt-student Matthias Jakob Schleiden, famous as a botany professor for his cell theory was Stimulator - and later beneficiaries - in this exemplary process for the German economic history.
The success of the Zeiss works drew many highly skilled workers in the city, its population increased dramatically from 1870 to the turn of the century by 150 percent to about 25,000. From the new prosperity, to the Abbe and Zeiss, the members of her left frh participate on the Foundation converted company by a ground-breaking social status, in turn, benefited the city and University: The Zeiss-fund-for example, the People's House, a cultural center and concert hall, built , and as the students and professors 350th University of Jubilee 1908 in a new building moved in, they owe it not least the benefits of the Zeiss Foundation. The largest single private donation to the magnificent Art Nouveau building of the famous churches and theater architect Theodor Fischer came from Otto Schott.
These range from the Empire to the Weimar Republic is for the modern science Jena extremely important. The biologist Ernst Haeckel as the major evolutionary theorists to Darwin taught in Jena, just as the mathematician and logician Gottlob Frege, the reference is now leading Anglo-Saxon philosophers. Other factors are Hans Berger as the discoverer of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the psychiatrist Otto Binswanger, the philosopher Rudolf Eucken, the historian Johann Gustav Droysen and Alexander Cartellieri, the philologists Sievers and Delbrück, the reform pedagogues Stoy and Petersen, the lawyer Edward Rosenthal and Max Wien, one of the pioneers of wireless telegraphy. In the visual arts experienced Jena flourished thanks to the avant-garde-oriented art association at Eberhard Grisebach and Botho Graef: Auguste Rodin in 1905 - an honorary doctorate by scandal in Weimar - and Ferdinand Hodler created 1907 / 9 for the new university hall of the famous monumental "German students in the War of Liberation in 1813. Visits and exhibitions of leading Expressionists and the connection to the Weimar Bauhaus influenced the artistic life of the city.
Despite - or perhaps because - of the libertarian climate happened to the Jena spiritual world of the mid-1920s, a harsh break. Quickly, the idea of a National model university, and it established itself here - in the immediate vicinity of the concentration camp in Weimar-Buchenwald - the leading theoretician of 'race theory' and 'euthanasia'. received in 1934 the university named "Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena.
For more information:
Special issue traces in Jena
Uni Jena Journal "As the University of Jena, her name came to"
After a short phase of reorganization in 1945 became the alma mater for the second time in the whirlpool of political ideology and should - at least since the late 50s - now develop into a socialist university. " was most visible signs 1967-72 - originally built for the VEB Carl Zeiss - designed by the famous architect Herbert DDR Henselmann a research tower, had to move into the many university scientists, in 1996, the University of leaving him again. With 127 m height of the tower overlooks a striking signal of socialist architecture of power that the city hall. Nevertheless, in its shadow was also an atmosphere of subversive resistance, Jena was in the GDR as a dissident stronghold.
1989 students and professors protested together on the road, nowhere were the limitations of intellectual freedom perceived as oppressive in research and science. Immediately after the political change took place, the University of Jena, a hard cut: All teachers were evaluated, and from the former sections were ten faculties of a clearly delineated classical comprehensive university - the only Thuringia. A new campus was built on the site of the former Zeiss main plant in the heart of the city, and the construction of the "Hospital 2000" is created in Jena-Lobeda. End of 2001, a new University Library opened. The teaching program is tied to old traditions, such as in the highly differentiated Faculty of Arts, which also apparently exotic 'areas such as Rumänistik, Ancient Near Eastern and Indo have a place. Or from the medical community who have taken the lead in hospital care for the entire Free State. And of course in the physics and the biological sciences and psychology.
Short distances and a close-knit research network are the secret to the renaissance of the city hall as a science city. "You know," many of the directors and supervisors of non-university institutions in Jena have also a professor at the Alma Mater held. In addition, maintains the Jena University an academic association with Halle and Leipzig.
Common, often interdisciplinary projects, such as in the four-DFG Collaborative Research and the seven graduate colleges, are the natural result. The fertile climate departure creates a whole series of unusual approaches and perspectives, rich in research, which are often pursued in an interdisciplinary and interconnected networks.
But the doctrine itself seems, Jena climate 'positive effect: the student-teacher ratio between students and lecturers is relatively good, so that the chances for a rapid and intensive study apparently led many fellow students to their Alma Mater in the last great University rankings of "mirror", "Stern / CHE", and "Stiftung Warentest" give "top marks. That this trend continues unabated, is the aim of both leaders in university, city and country.

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